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Bulletin Number 54 







North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development 

R. Bruce Etheridge, Director 

Division of Mineral Resources 

Jasper L. Stuckey, State Geologist 

Bulletin Number 54 



Eastern North Carolina 


E. Willard Berry 



R. Gregg Cherry, Chairman . . . . . Raleigh 

J. L. HORNE Rocky Mount 

Charles S. Allen Durham 

Oscar P. Breece Fayetteville 

J. Wilbur Bunn Raleigh 

K. Clyde Council Wananish 

W. J. Damtoft Asheville 

Percy B. Ferebee Andrews 

George W. Gillette . Wilmington 

A. H. Guion Charlotte 

W. Roy Hampton Plymouth 

R. W. Proctor Marion 

Eric Rodgers Scotland Neck 

Miles J. Smith Salisbury 

D. M. Stafford Pamona 

A. K. Winget Albemarle 

R. Bruce Etheridge, Director 



Raleigh, North Carolina 
February 2, 1948 

To His Excellency, Hon. R. Gregg Cherry, 

Governor of North Carolina. 


I have the honor to submit herewith, as Bulletin 54, a report 
entitled "Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina," by 
E. Willard Berry. 

Marls and limestones are important mineral resources in 
which there is an increasing interest. This report indicates that 
there are two areas in Eastern North Carolina which contain 
important reserves of these materials. It is hoped that the in- 
formation presented may prove helpful in the development of 
these natural resources. 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. Bruce Etheridge, 









Cretaceous Marl 2 

Eocene Marl . 2 

Miocene Marl 3 

Pliocene Marl 3 

Pleistocene Marl 3 




The New Bern Area 4 

The Wilmington Area 5 


Beaufort County 6 

Bertie County 6 

Bladen County 7 

Brunswick County 7 

Camden County 7 

Carteret County . 7 

Chowan County 8 

Columbus County 8 

Craven County 8 

Currituck County 9 

Dare County 9 

Duplin County 9 

Edgecombe County 10 

Gates County 1 

Greene County 10 

Halifax County _• 10 

Hertford County 1 1 

Hyde County r 11 

Jones County , 1 1 

Lenoir County 12 

Martin County 12 

New Hanover County 12 

Northampton County 13 

Onslow County 13 

Pamlico County 14 

Pasquotank County 14 

Pender County 14 

Perquimans County 14 

Pitt County . 15 

Robeson County 15 

Sampson County 15 

Tyrrell County 16 

Washington County 16 

Wayne County 16 

Wilson County 16 


I Marl and Limestone Analyses 5 

II Marl and Limestone Analyses, Jones County—. 12 


Geologic Map of the Coastal Plain of North Carolina In Pocket 




By : E. W. Berry* 


In 1918 the State of North Carolina, in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey, conducted 
a survey of the limestones and marls of North Carolina. This was published in 1921 as Bulletin No. 28 of 
the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. This Bulletin, which covered the limestones and marbles 
of the western part of the State and the limestones and marls of the Coastal Plain, is now out of print. Due 
to the interest in the limestones and marls of the Coastal Plain, it was thought desirable to check over the 
activities in that area. This is a preliminary report as it has been impossible to visit all the reported and 
abandoned pits in the area. It is hoped that this can be done eventually. 

The author wishes to express his thanks to the various County Agents and the Chambers of Commerce 
who have kindly answered inquiries about marl pits in their respective areas. He also wishes to thank Dr. 
Jasper L. Stuckey, State Geologist, and Mr. Paul Kelly who have made this work possible. 


The section encountered in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina ranges from the Tuscaloosa of the upper 
Cretaceous through the thin veneer of Pleistocene. 
The section recognized in 1921 1 is as follows : 




Pleistocene I Wicomico 


Columbia Group 


Pliocene ("Lafayette" 

(^ Waccamaw 

,,. ( Yorktown 

Miocene 1 , ,.. , 

| St. Mary s 

_, ( Castle Hayne 

Eocene ---{ Trent Marl 



Upper Cretaceous < „. , „ , 

| Black Creek 

Lower Cretaceous j Patuxent formation 

North of 
Neuse River 

Duplin Marl 

South of Neuse River 

1 Loughlin, G. F., Berry, E. W., and Cushman, J. A., Limestones and Marls of North Carolina. North Carolina Geol. and Econ. Survey Bull. 28, p. 83, 1921. 
* E. W. Berry, Professor of Geology, Duke University, Durham, N. C. Associate Geologist, Dept. Conservation and Development, Raleigh, N. C. 

Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina 

In the light of studies during the past several decades, the following section is proposed : 





i Wicomico _ , . . „ 

Pleistocene / Columbia Group 

* Sunderland 



Pliocepe C Waccamaw and Croatan sand 

Upper Miocene 1 Yorktown including Duplin Marl 

Lower Miocene I Trent Marl 

Upper Eocene y Castle Hayne (Jackson) 


Pee Dee 

Upper Cretaceous I Black Creek 



The following formations contain marls and limestones: Pee Dee formation, Castle Hayne limestone, 
Trent marl, Yorktown formation, Waccamaw formation, Chowan and Pamlico formations. The others in 
general are only sparingly fossiliferous and not lime bearing. 


(Upper Cretaceous) 

The Pee Dee formation is a gray to dark gray argillaceous, micaceous sand, carrying in places thin beds 
of limey concretions. It often contains more or less pyrite and sometimes lignitic tree remains. From avail- 
able reports 2 the amount of calcium carbonate seldom exceeds 30 per cent while the silica runs from about 
40 per cent to as high as 90 per cent. The Pee Dee sand was used as a commercial fertilizer filler for many 
years by the Acme Fertilizer Company at the town of Acme but this practice was discontinued some years 
ago. It was used for its sand content alone. At the present time there is no Pee Dee being used, and it is 
questionable if it is worth anything from the point of view of its calcium carbonate content. 


The Castle Hayne limestone is the only formation of Eocene age now recognized in North Carolina. 
It is upper Eocene and can be correlated with the Jackson. The Castle Hayne is a series of marls, lime- 
stones, sands, and a few clays. The basal portions often contain phosphatic pebbles. In some places the 
upper portion is soft and easily worked (though the author is not certain whether this soft part is Castle 
Hayne or a younger marl (Trent) on top of the Castle Hayne). There is at present no commercial pro- 
duction from the Castle Hayne for marl, but it is being used for mineral aggregate. Interest is being 
shown by Mr. Hugh MacRae at his farm at Rocky Point, Pender County, where it was ground and used some 
twenty years ago. Here the calcium carbonate ranges up to 88 per cent. 3 

2 Lc p. 90. 

3 Personal communication by Mr. H. MacRae. 

Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina 3 


The marls of the Miocene occur in the Trent and Yorktown formations. The Trent is lower Miocone in 
age rather than Eocene. 4 

It receives its name from the exposures along the Trent River from Trenton to New Bern. The Trent 
marls are in places composed of entire shells while in other places only shell fragments are to be found. 
The fossils where present are oysters, bryozoa, sea urchins and sand dollars, with occasional brachipods 
(terabratula forms). In places there is more or less solution and silicification making *an open stone suitable 
for buhrstones or mill stones. The walls and gate pillars of the cemetery at New Bern are of this silicified 
open Trent. (It is the author's opinion that the soft marl from H. MacRae's plantation is a pocket of soft 
Trent on top of harder Castle Hayne.) 

The upper surface of the marl is often very irregular due to deep and often narrow solution pits. The 
marl has been used for road metal, agricultural lime, and at present (1946) a company in New Bern is 
planning to make steam cured building blocks out of it calling them "Marlcrete". There is talk of using 
it for cement but here the question of the high silica content must be settled. It is the only marl now being 
worked, as far as the author knows, except the Castle Hayne at Belgrade. 

The Yorktown formation includes here the St. Mary's and Duplin of the older reports. They are all of 
the same or about the same age and probably represent facies of the Yorktown. The author is convinced 
from field evidence that the typical Yorktown extends well south of the Neuse River. The Yorktown does 
not contain nearly as high amount of lime as the Trent which may run up to 90 per cent. It is usually a 
shell marl with a high per cent of sand or clay. It should be noted that the sandy shell marl is not good on 
sandy land but is satisfactory for clay land, and the clayey shell marl is suitable for sandy land. The York- 
town (Duplin) is worked sporadically at Natural Wells in Duplin County for use on the land but no great 
quantity has been removed. 


The Pliocene contains the Waccamaw formation in the Cape Fear region and the Croatan sand in the 
northeast. Only the Waccamaw contains marls. The marl is almost entirely of the shell variety; although 
there are occasional indurated lenses which might be called poor limestone. The marl occurs as lenses in a 
predominantly sandy formation. In most cases the lenses are small but rich in lime running as high as 95 
per cent calcium carbonate in places. It outcrops near Supply in Brunswick County and has been dug for 
chicken lime near Kelly in Bladen County. Further investigation may disclose workable deposits. It is not 
being worked at present. 


The Chowan and Pamlico are the only Pleistocene formations containing enough shells to be called 
marls. The marl lenses are scattered and of limited extent, and often are not exposed by natural erosion as 
the country they cover is very flat and level. They are occasionally exposed by drainage ditches and, if not 
below, may be at or near tide level. In general, the marls are about half sand or clay and, hence, rather low 
grade. In places they are in the form of a coquina rock as in southern New Hanover County where they 
have been used as road metal in the past. Large pits near Belhaven show these shell marls on the spoil piles, 
but there is no record of the marl having been used. 


The soft marls low in sand can be used as a land dressing and the harder marls can be ground and used 
the same way. The low sand marls should be applied to sandy lands. The high sand, poorer lime, marls 
would benefit the heavy clay and black lands. The high lime, low sand, marls are also a possible source of 
lime for cement. There was a cement plant underway at the time of the 1929 depression, but the business 
failure was not due to the character of the marl and limestone. 

4 Kellum, L. B., Paleontology and Stratigraphy of the Castle Hayne and Trent marls in North Carolina. U. S. Geol. Sur. Prof. Paper 143, 1928. 

4 Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina 

The hard marl and limestone has been used in large quantities for roads and airstrips in Government 
areas during World War II. It has also been used as mineral aggregate in concrete both for buildings and 
roads. Some is now being used in cement blocks. It has been suggested that it can be used to make steam- 
cured lime bricks as is done with the Ocala limestone in Florida. Some is now being used for road metal 
both for private and public roads. 


There are thirty-five counties in the coastal plain portions of the State which may have usable marls. 
However, in the areas around New Bern and north of Wilmington the marls are higher grade and more 
persistent than in the rest of the coastal plain — hence, these two areas will be considered separately as units 
as well as by counties. 


This area is taken to include parts of Craven, Jones and Onslow Counties. The principal places where 
the marls are exposed are along (1) White Oak River from 11/2 miles above Belgrade to Hunting Creek; 
along (2) the Trent River from Pollocks ville almost to James City; and along (3) the Neuse River east of 
Fort Barnwell to the Bridge at Streets Ferry. 

Along the White Oak River, beginning 11/2 miles up river from Belgrade and extending down stream to 
Hunting Creek (also near Stella and Kuhns, Carteret County) marl is present but not everywhere exposed. 
The marl up river from Hunting Creek appears to be the Trent marl (lower Miocene) whereas that around 
Stella and Kuhns is Yorktown marl (Duplin facies, upper Miocene). The Yorktown marl here is of minor 
importance as it is rather clayey and low in lime but has been used in the past for liming land. The most 
important locality along the White Oak River is at Belgrade. Some 8V2 to 12 million tons of limestone were 
dug here during World War II. After removing about 10 feet of sandy overburden a 24 foot layer of the 
limestone was quarried. Just how thick this limestone is here is unknown but 8V2 miles north of Belgrade, 
at the U. S. Marine Corps Auxiliary Air Base (3 miles west of Pollocksville, Jones County), there are 15 
feet of yellow sandy Trent marl under 20 feet of Pleistocene sand, and 163 feet of Castle Hayne marl under 
57 feet of cover. 5 This raises the question as to the age of the limestone exposed at Belgrade where it is 
suggested that two formations may be present. 6 

Earlier writers considered the possibility of Duplin on top of Castle Hayne. The author is of the 
opinion that the Trent (lower Miocene) lies unconformably on the Castle Hayne (upper Eocene). This 
would explain the softer upper layer and its irregular occurrence as one goes down stream from Belgrade 
and also the Castle Hayne character of the hard limestone. At any rate, it seems to the author that we have 
here a great thickness of limestone, possibly over 150 feet. However, water is a problem as some three 
million gallons of water a day must be pumped to keep the quarry dry enough to excavate a 24 foot layer. 
As one goes down river the limestone looks more like the typical Trent but outcrops are not abundant enough 
or sufficiently well exposed to definitely establish the exact age of the limestones. 

If we extend the straight north-south boundary of Craven County south to Hunting Creek and north to 
the Neuse River and then strike a line parallel to the boundary, but 10 miles farther west between White Oak 
and the Neuse River, with these 2 rivers as north and south boundaries, an area of about 250 square miles 
or 160,000 acres will be enclosed, which is probably underlain by limestone or marl. 

The Trent marl is exposed along the Trent River from the bridge above Trenton, where 5 feet are ex- 
posed, to within 4 miles of New Bern, where some 3 feet are exposed above high tide. The Trent is highest 
above water level between Pollocksville (Castle Hayne is exposed at Pollocksville) and just below Island 
Creek. It reaches its highest point on the Hardy Whitford property where some 20 feet are exposed above 
water level on the south bank of the river. The north bank has been extensively worked east of Pollocks- 
ville to Wilson Creek where numerous old quarries can be seen. One of these, the Simmons, is still being 
worked. Here the marl is soft and can be easily excavated. 

Mundorff, M. J., Selected Well Logs in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, North Carolina Dept. Cons, and Devel., Div. Min. Res. Inf. Circ. 3, p. 26, 1945. 
" Kellum, L. B., Paleontology and Stratigraphy of the Castle Hayne and Trent marls in North Carolina. U. S. Geol. Sur. Prof. Paper 143, p. 125, 1928. 

Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina 5 

Along the Neuse River from about the Craven County line to Streets Ferry Bridge there are numerous 
exposures of marl, mostly Trent in age but a few exposures of Yorktown are present. A few of these are 
fairly thick (up to 21 feet) but usually only about 8 to 10 feet lie above the water table. These marls are 
mostly sandy and, hence, high in silica. New Bern's test well shows 50 feet of Trent limestone under an 
overburden of 40 feet, with Castle Hayne marl (very sandy here) immediately below the Trent. 7 

The Trent marl is in general moderately hard and contains numerous fossil remains, often in the form 
of casts and impressions although in places oysters, bryozoa and sand dollars are common. The marl is 
usually somewhat porous and open. The upper surface is very irregular due to solution channels and in 
places it is iron stained and /or silicified. 

The Castle Hayne is usually less porous than the Trent and harder and more compact. The fossils are 
poorly preserved. 

Analysis: (See table.) 

Table I 





P 2 6 



MgC0 3 














Castle Hayne... 











Near River 1 















Trent River M. & L. Co 




Trent River M. & L. Co 





N. C. Department of Agriculture 





N C. Department of Agriculture (ground) 




John Whitford Prop 
















Trent _ 



Scotts Landing ._ 




Chemical Lime Co. _ _ 









Average 13 analyses 


79 .22 to 94 .93 



This area includes parts of New Hanover and Pender Counties. Here the Castle Hayne (Eocene) 
limestone is the chief source of lime. The Castle Hayne has a much greater extent than this area, as it is 
exposed on the Trent River at Pollocksville, and on the Neuse around Biddies Landing and Maple Cypress 
in Craven County. Castle Hayne marl was worked during 1945 by the Superior Stone Company of Raleigh 

' Mundorff.-M J , Selected Well Logs in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, North Carolina Dept. Cons, and Devel., Div. Min. Res. Inf. Circ. 3, p. 19, 1945. 

* Lc pp 111-123. 

t Economic Paper 62, N. C Dept. Conservation & Development, The Mining Industry in N. C. in 1928 pp. 53-54. 

6 Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina 

4 miles south of Warsaw, Duplin County. The pits of the company are about 3 or 4 miles from the rail- 
road. When these pits were last visited (1946) they were shut down and the pumps were not running, 
but electric power was still connected. The Castle Hayne has the greatest areal extent of any of our Coastal 
Plain marls and has been worked at many places in the past. 

The deposits are somewhat irregular and the operators apparently had difficulty in following their ex- 
tent as there were numerous trenches in many directions. The extent of the deposits has not been de- 
termined. This area is about 60 miles from Wilmington. 

The old Castle Hayne quarries at Castle Hayne, New Hanover County, showed 1 to 10 feet of hard 
limestone. They are now full of water and abandoned. The City of Wilmington Quarry on Smith Creek 
shows 9 to 11 feet of limestone and is still being worked for road metal. From these two quarries north- 
ward, the Castle Hayne is fairly common. At Mr. Hugh MacRae's plantation, east of the town of Rocky 
Point, there is a considerable area so near the surface that limestone is struck by the plow and is exposed 
in ditches. Here it is reported to be over 20 feet thick but no proof of this thickness is available. Some 
limestone was ground here in 1918, and in 1945 the crusher was still in place but had not operated for many 
years. Between Rocky Point and Castle Hayne there is much "black land" which could well stand liming 
with ground Castle Hayne. The Castle Hayne is found along the Northeast Cape Fear River from Smith 
Creek to within about 10 miles of the north boundary of Pender County but, as the area is low, only a small 
layer is above the water table. The area is poorly served by roads for the same reason. There seems no 
reason though, why some higher areas in this locality could not produce limestone suitable for liming the 



The eastern part of the county is a low plain of the Pamlico formation and should contain small, scat- 
tered, poor-grade deposits of Pamlico shell marls which are probably too poor to consider as they contain 
only about 50 per cent calcium carbonate ; some near Belhaven are reported to run up to nearly 55 per cent. 
These should help condition the heavy soils in that area. 

The western part of the county is higher and, although the surface has thin surficial deposits of Pleis- 
tocene sands and loams, it is underlain by deposits of Yorktown Miocene with local marls such as have 
been dug around Washington and Chocowinity. Here some of the marls run from 56 to 81 per cent calcium 
carbonate, but the average is around 60 per cent. 

The Styron Plant mentioned in Bulletin 28 has been out of operation for years. 

At the present time there are no marl pits operating and none have been operating for many years. 

Analysis : 8 ■ 

Yorktown marl : 

Washington and Chocowinity 56-81% calcium carbonate, trace phosphate, average 60% calcium car- 

Pleistocene marl : 

J. J. Barnet, Belhaven. 49.58 and 54.55 per cent calcium carbonate. 
(N. C. Department of Agriculture) 


Bertie County is underlain with deposits of Yorktown Miocene and largely covered with Pleistocene 
sands and loams. Pleistocene Pamlico shells occur north of the road from Edenton to Windsor just west of 
the Chowan River bridge and below the road level. Here the sands contain only a few shells and can hardly 
be called a marl. 

8 Loughlin, G. F., Berry, E. W., and Cushman, J. A., Limestones and Marls of North Carolina. North Carolina Geol. and Econ. Survey Bull. 28, p. 105, 1921. 

Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina 7 

The Yorktown Miocene contains shell marls and these have been used on land in the past. The deposits 
are usually buried quite deep. Drilling at Windsor reports "shell rock fourteen feet at a depth of eighty-two 
feet," and at Colerain^'sand, and fine shell fourteen feet at 232 feet." 9 Where these Yorktown marls are 
exposed at or near the surface they might well be used for liming land if they have enough lime. They 
range from 28 to 63 per cent calcium carbonate averaging about 50 per cent. 10 


Bladen County is entirely covered with surficial Pleistocene sands and loams, in most cases directly 
underlain by Black Creek Cretaceous. There are occasional patches or lenses of Yorktown Miocene and 
Waccamaw Pliocene between the Cretaceous and the Pleistocene south of the Cape Fear River. These have 
been worked from time to time but today are abandoned. Waccamaw marl was being dug in 1938 along the 
road north of Carvers but ony a few hundred pounds at a time were being taken for chicken feed. Wacca- 
maw marls were dug years ago around Rosendale and Council. 

The Waccamaw marl may be excellent but usually is of very limited extent and very variable in compo- 
sition. The Miocene marls are also limited and quite variable. 

Analysis: 11 

Waccamaw marl runs 48 to 94 per cent calcium carbonate. 

Yorktown marl, "Oyster Shell Ridge" 70 per cent calcium carbonate, (p. 135) 

Average run 44 to 94 per cent. 


The surface of Brunswick County is the younger Pleistocene. In the northern part this is underlain by 
Pee Dee Cretaceous and in the southern part by Waccamaw Pliocene on top of Cretaceous. The author 
saw no evidence of Yorktown (Duplin) Miocene or Castle Hayne Eocene in the area. Waccamaw marl may 
occur along the Cape Fear, and it has been worked in recent years about Winnabow. Marls are reported 
along Town Creeek but they are not of recognizable age. Exposures of Waccamaw marl occur in the region 
just east of Supply and south of Route 17. These are small but have occasionally yielded a few hundred 
pounds for chicken feed. 

The use of marl has stopped due to cheaper ground limestone shipped in. 

Analysis : 

Yorktown-Brunswick River 87.57 per cent calcium carbonate. 12 


Camden County is a near sea-level plain made up of the Pamlico formation with some recent dunes ris- 
ing above the plain. Local lenticular shell beds have been found in excavations and ditches but in every case 
they have all been small and fairly low in lime. Similar beds should occur scattered anywhere in the county 
but, because of their small size and low lime content, would not be of commercial value. 

The Camden Causeway from Elizabeth City to Camden was built by dredging up a fill, in which Pamlico 
shells were found. 


Carteret County is generally a low plain covered with Pamlico formation. Scattered low-grade shell 
marls occur in the county but are too low-grade for use. Marl has been taken from old pits between 
Stella and Kuhns which is probably of Yorktown age. This marl was used on the land but how much and 
with what success is unknown. Some Yorktown marls were dredged up along the 12-foot channel of the 
Intercoastal Waterway west of Bogue but they were low in lime. Shell marl is reported near Newport and 
along the White Oak River but these seemly are of poor grade. 

9 Mundorff, M. J., Selected Well Logs in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, North Carolina Dept. Cons, and Devel., Div. Min. Res. Inf. Circ. 3, p. 9, 1945. 

10 Loughlin, G. E., Berry, E. W., and Cushman, J. A., Limestones and Marls of North Carolina. North Carolina Geol. and Econ. Survey Bull. 28, p. 101, 1921. 
u Lc. p. 128. 

12 Lc. p. 134. 

8 Marls and Limestones op Eastern North Carolina 

A well drilled at Marine Corps Auxiliary Air Base, altitude 15 feet, at Atlantic, penetrated Pliocene 
Croatan sand with shells at 30 to 90 feet, and Duplin below that. 13 A well on U. S. Navy Section Base, 
Morehead City, altitude 23 feet, cut Croatan sand with shell at 30 feet and Yorktown sandy limestone at 
97 feet. 14 A well at Fort Macon State Park, elevation about 10 feet, encountered shelly sand (Pamlico?) 
at 50 feet and sandy limestone at 80 feet. A well at U. S. Marine Auxiliary Air Base, Bogue, altitude 18.5 
feet, encountered shells from 40 feet down with Miocene limestone at about 105 feet and Trent limestone at 
175-260 feet. These deep marls, although interesting, are too deep to be of value. The marl around Stella 
and Kuhns has not been worked for about 25 or 30 years and is probably of little value. 


Chowan County is largely covered with Pleistocene sands and loams. Under these the Yorktown forma- 
tions contain some poor shell marls. A well drilled at Edenton 15 encountered the Yorktown at the depth of 
50 feet and shell marls at about 105 feet. A well at Marine Corps Air Station, 4 miles southeast Edenton, 
encountered the Yorktown at 60 feet and shells at about the same depth. This would indicate that these poor 
grade marls are too deep to consider. 


The Wicomico and Chowan Pleistocene terraces cover all of Columbus County but are usually quite thin. 
Beneath this Pleistocene cover and in depressions on top of the Cretaceous are scattered lenses of Yorktown 
(Duplin) Miocene and Waccamaw Pliocene. These may be found at most places in the county, but they are 
small in area, often quite thin, and are not of sufficiently good grade to warrant operation. 

The fertilizer plant at Acme had a thin bed of Waccamaw Pliocene in its pit but did not use it even 
though it ran up to 95 per cent calcium carbonate. This marl is only a few inches thick. The pit was for 
sand filler. 

Marls at Neills Eddy landing contain from 65 to 85 per cent calcium carbonate. 

Analysis: 16 

Waccamaw marls 77.96 per cent calcium carbonate with 0.46 per cent phosphoric acid. 


Craven County has surface deposits of sand, loam, and peat of Pleistocene to recent age. The eastern 
part is about at sea level, and it rises gradually to the west and north to about 60 feet. In the western part, 
under the Pleistocene, is Trent Miocene and in the eastern part is Castle Hayne Eocene. 

Marl has been dug in the area between Riverdale and Croatan. At Riverdale it was underlain by an 
oyster shell bed 17 along Slocum Creek, at Shell Slough on the Neuse. Exposures occur on the banks of the 
Neuse behind the first school south of James City and east of U. S. Route 70. These marls are all Pleis- 
tocene and, although spotty and often quite variable in amount of lime, might be of local use. 

The marl pit off the road between Maple Cypress and Hanrahan, mentioned in Bulletin 28, p. 109, has 
not been worked in many years although there is considerable marl of varying hardness lying around the 
pit. Marl is irregularly exposed along the southwest bank of the Neuse River from just east of Fort Barn- 
well to the Bridge at Streets Ferry. These marls are all more or less sandy and are either Trent, Castle 
Hayne, or Yorktown Miocene. 

In 1912 The Chemical Lime Company of New Bern had a plant on the north bank of the Trent River 
at the mouth of Wilson Creek where they made hydrated lime and later just ground marl. It shut down in 
April 1912. The pits showed marls averaging 90 per cent calcium carbonate with an average thickness 
of 21 feet. 18 

13 Mundorff, M. J., Selected Well Logs in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, North Carolina Dept. Cons, and Devel., Div. Min. Res. Inf. Circ. 3, p. 24-25, 

14 Lc. p. 24. 

15 Lc. p. 10. 

16 Loughlin, G. P., Berry, E. W., and Cushman, J. A., Limestones and Marls of North Carolina North Carolina Geol. and Econ. Survey Bull. 28, p. 137, 1921. 

17 Lc. p. 108. 

18 Lc. p. 112-144. 

Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina 9 

At the present time (1946) pits which have been operated in the last several years are near Fort 
Barnwell, Epworth, Wintergreen, Jasper and Core Creek. 

Analysis: 19 

Yorktown; Rock Landing, Neuse River 51.62 per cent calcium carbonate 

0.18 phosphate (P 2 5 ) and 48 per cent silica (Si0 2 ) 

Trent; Rock Landing, Neuse River 66.29% CaC0 3 

Chemical Lime Company, New Bern Calcium Carbonate Silica 

94.58 4.09 

89.80 3.74 

Average 13 analysis : 79.22 to 94.93 per cent 


Currituck County is a near sea-level plain made up of the Pamlico formation with some recent sand 
dunes on the plain. Local shell beds have been found in ditches and excavations in the north end of the 
county. Local beds of the same kind of shell marl may be found scattered in the county. However, the 
beds are small, poor in lime, and definitely not of any commercial importance. 


Dare County is a low plain of the Pamlico formation and should have local deposits of Pamlico shell 
marl. As the Pamlico shell marls are universally poor grade and limited in extent elsewhere, they are 
probably of little importance here. 


Pleistocene terrace materials make up the entire surface of Duplin County. The northwestern part 
of the county is underlain by Black Creek Upper Cretaceous and the rest of the county by Pee Dee Upper 
Cretaceous. Between the Pleistocene and the Cretaceous are disconnected lenses and remnants of Castle 
Hayne Eocene, Yorktown (Duplin) and Trent Miocene. These last three contain the only marls and /or 
limestone in the region. 

The Trent marls extend more or less easterly from around Kenansville to the Jones and Onslow county 
lines. West of Kenansville the Yorktown (Duplin) Miocene occurs in a more or less north-south belt, 
while south of the Trent and east of the Yorktown is the Castle Hayne. 

The oldest working for marl in the county is at Natural Wells a few miles west of Magnolia where 
there are several sinks which show both Yorktown (Duplin) and probably Trent marls. This is the classic 
Duplin locality. Marl in small quantities has been taken from this pit for years but no great amount has 
been used in recent years. The overburden is from 10 to 15 feet thick. 

On the farm of Mr. H. D. Williams between Serecta and Pine Hill (Lenoir County) about six miles 
from Pink Hill considerable marl was dug, up to about 1942 to 1943. The marl is probably Trent Miocene. 

The Superior Stone Company of Raleigh operated a marl pit on the farm of E. R. Carlton, 4 miles 
south of Warsaw, during 1945. Here they had extensive openings and trenches. They ground and screen- 
ed the marl and trucked it from the pits. In the fall of 1945 they were not operating these pits. The marl 
contained many Bryozoa and Echinoids and is probably Castle Hayne in age. This marl apparently is a 
good one and should be valuable both as a source of lime, and the harder parts for aggregate in concrete. 

The Yorktown marls are very variable in calcium content ; records show that they run from 30 to 90 
per cent calcium carbonate (Bull. 28, p. 124) and offer little hope of commercial deposits. 

The Castle Hayne is not being worked as far as is known at present; although it was reportedly used 
in 1918 near Chinquapin 20 where it was reported 72.24 per cent calcium carbonate and 2.74 per cent phos- 
phoric acid. 

Analysis: 21 

19 Lc. p. 111-112. 

20 Lc. p. 123. 

21 Lc. p. 123-124. 

10 Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina 

Castle Hayne 

Chinquapin 72.24% calcium carbonate 2.74 phosphoric acid 


Warsaw 31.07% calcium carbonate 

86. % calcium carbonate 

Rose Hill 90.74 % calcium carbonate 


Edgecombe County is generally flat and the surface is made up of sands and loams of the Pleistocene. 
Below these surficial beds are scattered beds of Yorktown Miocene on older upper Cretaceous. It is about 
75 years since any marl has been dug in this county and the reports of marl pits have disappeared with the 
passing of time. The Pleistocene seems to be without marls and the Yorktown has rather limited and low 
grade marls. These Yorktown beds outcrop down the Tar River from Rocky Mount to the county line and 
on the creeks near Wrendale and Battleboro. A well at Pinetops 22 penetrated Yorktown marl at 57 feet. 

Analysis : 23 
Yorktown Under 25 % calcium carbonate 


Gates County, although largely covered with Pleistocene sands and loams, is higher and less swampy 
than the counties to the east. The county is underlain by the Yorktown formation which outcrops along 
the Chowan River. The Yorktown contains some poor grade shell marls which are of little value due to 
the low content of lime. 


Greene County ranges in elevation from 30 to 120 feet above sea level. The surface is covered with 
thin beds of Pleistocene sands and loams underlain with Cretaceous except where occasional lenses of the 
Yorktown Miocene intervene. These scattered shell marls are generally low in lime and have not been 
worked. Yorktown beds with fossils are known but these do not contain even 25 per cent calcium car- 

Analysis : 24 
Yorktown Less 25 % calcium carbonate 0-3 % silica 


Halifax County is underlain on the western half by older crystalline rocks devoid of lime. The eastern 
half is underlain with scattered deposits of the Yorktown Miocene largely hidden by Pleistocene sands and 
loams. Where the Yorktown is exposed and contains marl it has been dug locally at numerous localities 
along the rivers, streams, and along the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad near Scotland Neck. The calcium 
carbonate ranges from about 35 to 85 per cent generally running under 50 per cent. Additional explora- 
tion might show some of these marls suitable for liming land. A well at Scotland Neck, altitude about 100 
feet, records 12 feet of Yorktown marl at a depth of 41 feet. 25 

Analysis : 26 
Yorktown marl 

Scotland Neck 36% calcium carbonate 

Tillery 87 % calcium carbonate 

22 Mundorff, M. J., Selected Well Logs in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, North Carolina Dept. Cons, and Devel., Div. Min. Res. Inf. Circ. 3, p. 19, 1945. 

23 Loughlin, G. F., Berry, E. W., and Cushman, J. A., Limestones and Marls of North Carolina. North Carolina Geol. and Econ. Survey Bull. 28, p. 102, 1921. 

24 Lc. p. 105. 

25 Mundorff, M. J., Selected Well Logs in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, North Carolina Dept. Cons, and Devel., Div. Min. Kes. Inf. Circ. 3, p. 8, 1945. 

26 Loughlin, G. F., Berry, E. W., and Cushman, J. A., Limestones and Marls of North Carolina. North Carolina Geol. and Econ. Survey Bull. 28, p. 100, 1921. 

Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina 11 


Hertford County ranges in elevation from east to west from near sea level up to 70 to 80 feet. The 
Cretaceous here is buried at depths of from 140 feet to 250 feet and carries on its upper surface scattered 
remnants of the Miocene Yorktown formation. The whole area is thinly covered over with Pleistocene 
sands and loam. The Yorktown is poorly exposed along the Meherrin River, the Wiccacon River and Pote- 
casi Creek. In the past, marl has been dug near Lotta, Murfreesboro, and Winton; but no digging has 
been done, as far as is known, in the last five years. 

Reports of the marl from Potecasi Creek give as high as 78 per cent calcium carbonate, but average 
samples run under 50 per cent. It is possible that these marls along Potecasi Creek might, if in large 
enough quantities, be used for liming land. These could be used on peanut lands with benefit. The others 
are, on the average, too poor to dig. 

Analysis : 27 
Yorktown marl 

Potecasi Creek _-_ 33-61% calcium carbonate Trace phosphoric acid 


Hyde County is a low plain of Pamlico Pleistocene. Scattered local lenses of shell marl should be 
found in the county. The Intercoastal Waterway has cut some of these shell marls near Pungo River, as 
shells are exposed on the spoil piles. These marls are low in lime, high in sand, and of little value as a 
source of lime. 


The Chowan Pleistocene terrace covers the southeastern part of the county and the Wicomico Terrace 
the northwestern part. Under this non-marl surficial cover, except in the western part (where the Pee 
Dee Cretaceous is present) the Trent Miocene marl occurs. The Trent is exposed along the Trent River 
and its tributaries. 

At one time the Trent River Marl and Limestone Company and the North Carolina Department of 
Agriculture worked adjoining properties on the north side of the Trent near Scotts Creek. In 1918, they 
were mining some 12,000 tons of marl and limestone a year, all of which was ground. These plants have 
long since fallen into decay. When the Trent River Marl and Limestone Company plant was visited in 
1945, the present owner was removing what was left of the railroad track for scrap, while the wood struc- 
ture had almost entirely fallen in and rotted away. 

At the present time (1946), the Leon Simmons' Pit, about a mile east of Pollocksville and near the 
river bank, is the only pit being worked in the county. It was worked off and on by prison labor for some 
years before 1941 as a source of aggregate for concrete. In the spring of 1946, it was leased by Mr. Hodges 
of New Bern and is now being operated by a dragline. Here the overburden varies from nothing to four 
or five feet. The top of the marl is very irregular and contains many tubular sinks full of sand or clay. 
The present operation consists of deepening the present pits by about 10 feet below the water level. This 
10 feet is removed with a dragline and the work can go on easily as long as the marl is soft enough. It was 
planned to barge this marl to New Bern but, to date (August 1946), it is being trucked to New Bern and 
used in part for aggregate for cement blocks and part for road metal. The dragline has a one-half yard 
bucket and is piling marl well ahead of truck removal. 

From Comfort toward the eastern county line there are numerous outcrops of Trent marl along both 
the north and south banks of the Trent River. They consist of exposuresof marl from a few feet to 12 or 
15 feet thick. Some is slightly to fairly well silicified but, for the most part, the marls will run better than 
75 per cent calcium carbonate, with an overburden from zero to ten feet. These marls all have a thicker 
overburden as one goes away from the river and about a mile back are covered with a gray clay with a 
variable sand content. 

A deeper covered strip of marl runs southward from near Dover into Onslow County. This has been 
little worked due to the heavy overburden. 

Analysis : see table II 

67 Lc. p. 99. 


Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina 

Table II 





Si0 2 






Marl on Trent River _. 

34,44 & 79% 






E. E. Randolph * 

it n <« * 

(i << it * 



1 t 

1 t 


1 t 


1 t 

Mill Creek ___ 

1 t 



t t 

? t 

? t 

1 t 

* Economic Paper 62, N. C. Dept., Conservation & Development. The Mining Industry in North Carolina in 1926, pp. 53-54. 
t Bull. 28, N. C. Dept., Conservation & Development. Limestones & Marls in North Carolina 1921, pp. 114-123. 


North of the Neuse River, Lenoir County is underlain by the Pee Dee Cretaceous and is more or less 
covered with surficial sands and clays of the Pleistocene. There are a few thin, high lime beds in the Pee 
Dee, but they are too thin to be of value for lime. South of the Neuse is found the Castle Hayne Eocene. 
The Castle Hayne is overlain by Pleistocene sands and loams often of fair thickness so as to bury the Castle 
Hayne under considerable overburden. However, the stream valleys often expose the Castle Hayne. On 
Whitely Creek, at Dave Wilkins plantation a soft and fine-grained marl analyzed 57 per cent calcium car- 
bonate, while a sample from just above the junction of Whitely Creek and Neuse River with only a few 
feet of overburden analyzed 74.05 per cent. Along Mill Branch under some four feet of overburden an 
80 per cent marl is reported. Some of the marls are supposed to run over 80 per cent and should be worth 
looking into. 

Analysis : 28 
Trent Marl: Wilkins plantation Whitely Creek — 57% calcium carbonate 

Outlaw plantation Whitely Creek and Neuse River 74.05 calcium carbonate — 0.50% phosphoric 

Mill Branch 80% calcium carbonate 
North Carolina Department of Agriculture 70-88% calcium carbonate 


Martin County is underlain with Miocene Yorktown surfaced with Pamlico sands and loam of the 
Pleistocene. Marls are often encountered in the wells and at Williamston 29 a well encountered Yorktown 
Miocene with shells from 40 to 100 feet below the surface. Numerous old pits scattered through the county 
attest to attempts to develop the marls. There is no record of any marl being used in recent years, and it 
is thought these marls are rather poor in lime. 

Analysis : 30 
Yorktown — Less than 30% calcium carbonate. 


The surface of New Hanover County is covered with Pamlico and Chowan Pleistocene terraces. 
Castle Hayne Eocene in the vicinity of its type locality underlies the northwest part of the county. 


28 Lc. p. 107. 

69 Mundorff, M. J., Selected Well Logs in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, North Carolina Dept. Cons, and Devel., Div. Min. Res. Inf. Circ. 3, p. 13, 1945. 

30 Loughlin, G. F., Berry, E. W., and Cushman, J. A., Limestones and Marls of North Carolina. North Carolina Geol. and Econ. Survey Bull. 28, p. 101, 1921. 


Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina 13 

type locality is at the old abandoned county quarry at Castle Hayne eight miles north of Wilmington. An- 
other old quarry in the Castle Hayne is the old Wilmington City Quarry on Smith Creek. Some 12 to 15 
feet of Castle Hayne were taken out, the harder layers being used for road metal and the softer for land 
dressing. Both these localities were worked out or abandoned some twenty years ago. 

At the present time the county is working a pit about a mile west of the Castle Hayne- Wilmington 
Highway, just south of Prince George Creek. Most of this is used for road work. 

Pamlico coquina is exposed along U. S. Highway Route 421, south of Wilmington to Carolina Beach 
and along the beach between Fort Fisher and Carolina Beach. Some of the harder coquina has, in the past, 
been used for road metal. 

All of the marl in this county is rather indifferent in regard to the content of calcium carbonate which 
varies from 20 to 90 per cent. It does not look as if commercial production is possible. 

Analysis : 31 

Castle Hayne— 35% -75% calcium carbonate. 


Northampton County reaches elevations of about 350 feet. The surface is made up of scattered patches 
of Pamlico and Croatan sands and loams which here seem to be free of shells. The underlying Yorktown, 
which was originally deposited on the older Cretaceous, has been eroded away over much of the area but 
where it occurs may carry low grade shell marls. These local marls sometimes run over 35 per cent calcium 
carbonate. At Severn, analyses show 33.67 per cent calcium carbonate. These deposits have been used 
locally for land beneficiation but, at present, are not being used. 

Analysis : 32 

Yorktown Marl at Severn — 33.67% calcium carbonate — 0.20 phosphoric acid. 


Thick Pleistocene deposits cover the southern coastal part of the county, whereas for the rest of the 
county the Pleistocene is much thinner and Yorktown and Trent Miocene, as well as Castle Hayne Eocene, 
are exposed in stream valleys and ditches. 

The most important locality in the county is at Belgrade. During the World War II some 8^2 million 
to 12 million tons of this limestone were shipped for air strips and road metal in the region. Then the plant 
operated some 12 steam shovels. At present (August 1946) they are operating 1 shovel, 1 drag line, 12 
trucks, and 2 wagon drills. The main pit is across White Oak River in Jones County, but the plant is in 
Onslow. At this pit there is 10 feet of sandy overburden which is removed with a small power shovel. 
Wagon drills put down holes about 25 feet and the lime stone is shot, in some cases the fractionation is 
poor and jack hammers are used to further reduce the fragments. The upper 20 feet of marl is loaded by 
steam shovel and trucked to the plant. Later the drag line takes out another four feet of limestone, below 
the floor left by the steam shovel without additional blasting. The limestone is trucked to the plant and 
. crushed, sized, and loaded in railroad cars and trucks as needed. Some is stockpiled. Approximately three 
million gallons of water per day are being pumped to keep the pit dry. The material is partly Trent marl 
and partly Castle Hayne. The entire thickness is not being removed. 

From Belgrade southward along White Oak River to below the mouth of Hunter Creek the Trent is 
present although not everywhere exposed. 

From Richlands to Jacksonville along the New River sandy Castle Hayne marls are to be found but, as 
far as known, are not being used. 

Analysis : 33 

31 Lc. p. 133. 

33 Lc. p. 98. 

33 Lc. p. 125-127. 


Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina 

Trent and /or Castle Hayne ' Calcium carbonate Phosphoric acid 

Belgrade 56.50 % 4.3 

Belgrade 37.62 % 8.0 


Richland 66.49 % 1.15 

Richland 60.62 % 12.24 

Greenbranch 42.28% 4.61 

Jacksonville , 66.49% 1.15 


F. P. Drane 
Mr. Henderson 

B. W. Kilgore 


Pamlico County is low and swampy being covered with the Pamlico Pleistocene. A very poor grade 
shell marl is found on ditch dumps near Olympia on the road to Reelsboro. Scattered shell fragments occur 
on the ditch banks near Bayboro. Shell fragments are encountered in the borrow pits near Merritt where 
material was removed to build roads. North of Bayboro half way to the county line in the vicinity of the 
burned out village of Bay City, there are numerous water filled pits which apparently were dug for marl. 
The marl was apparently poor and at or below the water table. There is no record of it being used and the 
old fields do not show shell fragments, so it is questionable if any shell marl was used. Shell marl has been 
reported near Oriental and from the description should be Trent but the report cannot be verified. These 
numerous occurrences in this county are all of such poor value that they are useless as sources of lime. 


Pasquotank County is a low level plain of the Pamlico formation with scattered, low lime shell beds 
of the Pamlico formation to be expected almost anywhere in the area. At Elizabeth City a marl of 26 per 
cent calcium carbonate has been found. This, however, is too poor in lime to be of any value. 


The surface of Pender County is made up of Pleistocene sands and loams which increase in thickness 
as one approaches the coast, except for narrow outcrops of the underlying beds along the streams. Pee 
Dee Cretaceous underlies the Pleistocene except in the eastern part of the county where the Castle Hayne 
Eocene is below the Pleistocene, and except where very thin beds of Yorktown Miocene are between the 
Castle Hayne and the Pleistocene. 

Castle Hayne marl has been taken out at various places in a strip several miles wide along the North- 
east Cape Fear from near Watha southward and below Rocky Point into New Hanover County, the largest 
pits being on the farm of Mr. Hugh MacRae east of Rocky Point. In this area the Castle Hayne is ex- 
posed as low ridges in the fields and has very little overburden (0-5 feet). The plant that was in operation 
in 1918 is still standing although it has not been used for some years. From examination of some of the 
material around the mill, it appears that a thin lens of Trent is on top of the Castle Hayne at this place. 
Mr. MacRae has shown considerable interest in giving some two million tons of Castle Hayne to the State 
if they will remove it for agricultural uses. Analyses show slightly over 89 per cent calcium carbonate. 
Although not on the river or railroad, these marls could well be trucked to the "black lands" lying along 
the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. 

Some possible Pleistocene marls were dug 25 years or more ago along the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad 
near Woodside. The marls were poor grade. 

Analysis : 34 

34 Lc. pp. 129-131. 

Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina 


Castle Hayne 

H. MacRae Plant 

Rocky Point 

Nixon House 
Rocky Point 


SiO- 2 

CaS0 4 




Law & Company 





P 2 Og 








25.75 (CaO) 



F. P. Drane 





Perquimans County is a low level plain of Pamlico formation except along the western edge where the 
Chowan formation makes higher ground. Here the Pamlico contains scattered lenses of shell marl, but it 
is too limited in extent and too poor in lime to be be of any value. 


The gently rolling surface of Pitt County rises from near sea level along the principal streams to about 
120 feet near the western border. The surface is in general sands and loams of the Pleistocene. Miocene 
Yorktown underlies the Pleistocene and is in turn underlain by Cretaceous which outcrops along the Neuse 
and Tar Rivers and Big and Little Contentnea Creeks. Shell marls are widely distributed and range in 
depth from the surface to 50 or 65 feet and are Yorktown Miocene in age. 

No marl has been dug in the northwest part of the county in 25 or 30 years, but some was dug within 
the last year (1945) on the Greene Place between Grifton and the Craven County line. 


The Pleistocene sands and loams cover most if not all the surface of this county and for the most part 
are underlain by non-calcareous Cretaceous, although here and there on this Cretaceous and under the Ple- 
istocene are isolated patches of low calcium Yorktown Miocene, and occasionally some Waccamaw (Plio- 
cene) marl. 

In the past the Yorktown and Waccamaw marls were used on the land, but there has been no produc- 
tion for at least a decade. 

Analysis : 35 
Yorktown Less than 50 % calcium carbonate. 


Pleistocene sands and loams cover the entire county and except for a narrow strip along the eastern 
margin of the county they are underlain for the most part by the Black Creek Cretaceous. The Castle 
Hayne Eocene underlies the eastern margin. On top of both the Black Creek and the Castle Hayne there 
may be local remnants of the Yorktown and Trent Miocene. Various reports give past digging of marl 
from Great Coharie Creek eastward to Turkey, but there has been little or no marl dug during the last 50 

Analysis : 36 
Yorktown Calcium carbonate Phosphoric acid 

Yorktown 40-50% 0.70% -1.50% 

Newton Grove 55.86% 


Harrell's Store 75.69% 

33 Lc. p. 128. 
30 Lc. p. 12T. 



16 Marls and Limestones of Eastern North Carolina 


Tyrrell County is a low plain of Pamlico formation. Local and poor grade shell marls of the Pamlico 
should occur scattered in the area, but they are thought to be of little importance. 


Washington County is low and largely covered with Pamlico Pleistocene. Here the scattered local and 
poor shell marls of the Pamlico should be found. However, as they are so poor and limited, they are of 
little value. 


Wayne County ranges in elevation from about 70 feet to 190 feet above sea level and the surface is 
fairly well dissected. In the western part of the county the non-calcareous slates occur. Resting on these 
are non-calcareous Cretaceous beds. In the southeast part of the county there is some scattered Castle 
Hayne Eocene, as well as a few isolated patches of Trent Miocene and a single patch of Yorktown Miocene. 
All these various formations are more or less masked under Pleistocene sand, gravels, and loams. Various 
attempts to work marl around Mount Olive have been made in the past, but none are known to be working 
at present. There is marl in both the Castle Hayne and Trent. They both may be locally high in lime, the 
Trent being the better of the two. 

Analysis : 37 

Trent Marls 40-83% calcium carbonate Average 70% 


Wilson County is reasonably level and covered with sands and loams of the Pleistocene. The western 
half of the county is underlain by Cretaceous beds entirely without marls. In the eastern half of the county 
on top of the Cretaceous, but usually covered by Pleistocene, are scattered patches of Yorktown Miocene. 
The Yorktown contains scattered layers of marl. Marls have been dug, in the past, near Wilson on Toisnot 
Creek, Hominy Creek, along White Oak swamp, and near Sharpsburg. Analyses mentioned in Bulletin No. 
28 give the range of calcium carbonate from 38 to 72 per cent. Where the marls run over 50 per cent and 
are easily available, they might be used locally in spite of their limited extent. 

Analysis : 38 
Yorktown 38-72% __ calcium carbonate 0-4i/ 2 % phosphoric acid 

37 Lc. pi). 106-107 

38 Lc. p. 102. 


APR - 5 196J